It is obligatory to perform wuÃÙ in the following six cases:
1. To offer obligatory prayers, other than the prayer for the dead. As for recommended prayers, wuÃÙ is a condition for their validity.
2. To perform a sajdah or a tashahhud which was forgotten during prayers, and to perform the two sajdah al-sahw which are performed for a forgotten tashahhud. If he performs an act which invalidates his wuÃÙ in the interval between his prayer and performing these acts, like urinating, the obligatory precaution is that he should repeat his prayer. However, it is not obligatory to perform wuÃÙ for the sajdah al-sahw which is performed for any other reason.
3. To perform an obligatory ÔawÁf in Hajj or ‘umrah.
4. If a person makes a nadhr (vow), or a covenant, or swears to perform wuÃÙ.
5. If he makes a nadhr to touch the Qur’an with a part of his body, provided his nadhr is valid, like a nadhr to kiss the Qur’an.
6. To wash a Qur’an which has become najis, or to remove it from a place where its presence would be concomitant with violating its sanctity, if he is compelled to touch the script of the Qur’an with his hands or any other part of his body. However if delaying the task for the period required to perform wuÃÙ results in disrespecting the Qur’an, he should remove it from the area without having performed wuÃÙ, or wash it if it has become najis.
323. Touching the script of the Qur’an—that is, causing any part of the body to touch the script of the Qur’an—is forbidden on one who does not have wuÃÙ. There is no harm in causing bodily hair to touch the Qur’an, as long as it is not considered a part of the skin. If the Qur’an is translated into English or any other language, there is no harm in touching parts of its script which do not contain the names of Divine essence and Divine attributes.
324. It is not obligatory to prevent a child or an insane person from touching the script of the Qur’an. However, if their touching of the Qur’an is deemed sacrilegious, they should be restrained.
325. Based on obligatory precaution, one who does not have wuÃÙ should not touch the names of Divine essence and Divine attributes, no matter what language they are written in. The recommended precaution is that he should also refrain from touching the blessed names of the fourteen infallibles (Peace be upon them all).
326. If a person performs wuÃÙ or ghusl prior to the time of prayer with the intention of being in a state of purity, it will be deemed valid. There is also no harm in performing wuÃÙ close to the time of prayer, with the intention of preparing oneself for prayer. In fact, it is recommended to do so.
327. If a person attains certainty that the time of prayer has set in, or obtains a proof authorized by the sharia to that effect, and makes the intention of an obligatory wuÃÙ, but does not stipulate the intention of obligation, his wuÃÙ will be valid even if he later realizes that the time for prayer had not set in.
328. It is recommended for a person to perform wuÃÙ for acts whose perfection through wuÃÙ is established in the traditions, even though wuÃÙ may not be a condition for the validity of those acts. Examples of this include the rites of Hajj, other than the obligatory ÔawÁf and the prayers for it, wherein wuÃÙ is a condition for their validity. It is also recommended for the prayer for the dead, laying a dead body in the grave, going to the mosque, reading the Qur’an and writing it, and sleeping. It is also recommended for one who has wuÃÙ, to perform it again.
Whenever a person performs wuÃÙ for any of the above mentioned reasons, he can also perform any of the acts for which wuÃÙ is obligatory. For example, he can offer prayers or perform an obligatory ÔawÁf with that wuÃÙ.