967. The qiyÁm during takbÐrat al-iÎrÁm and the one preceding rukÙ, which is referred to as qiyÁm muttaÒil bi al- rukÙ‘, are pillars of prayer. Other instances of qiyÁm, such as the qiyÁm during the recitation of sÙrah al-fÁtiÎah and the second sÙrah, and the qiyÁm following rukÙ‘, are not pillars. If a person omits them due to forgetfulness, his prayer is valid.
968. It is obligatory to stand for a moment prior to takbÐrat al-iÎrÁm and following it, to ensure that it has been pronounced whilst standing.
969. If a person forgets to perform rukÙ, and recollects after descending to the sitting position (prior to sujÙd), he should stand, and then perform rukÙ. If a person performs rukÙ without standing, straight from the sitting position, his prayer is invalid, because he has not performed the qiyÁm muttaÒil bir ruku.
970. When a person stands for takbÐrat al-iÎrÁm, or the qirÁÞah, his body should be stationary, and he should not bend towards any side. Obligatory precaution dictates that he should not lean on anything as long as he is not compelled; however, there is no problem if he is compelled, or if he moves his feet while bowing for rukÙ.
971. There is no problem if a person forgetfully moves or bends his body, or leans on an object during the obligatory qiyÁm of takbÐrat al-iÎrÁm or the qirÁÞah.
972. Obligatory precaution dictates that both feet should be placed on the ground while standing. It is however not necessary to spread the weight of the body between both feet. In fact, there is no problem if the weight is concentrated on one foot.
973. If a person, who is able to stand properly, spreads his feet in a manner that one would no longer deem him to be standing, his prayer is invalid. Obligatory precaution dictates that his prayer is similarly invalid if his standing is not what is normally deemed standing.
974. A person should maintain bodily composure while reciting the obligatory dhikr of prayer. If he wishes to move his body forward or backwards, or wishes to move his body slightly to the right or left, he should remain silent.
975. If a person recites a recommended dhikr while in motion, both the dhikr and the prayer are valid. However, if he recites the recommended dhikr of prayer, with the intention of reciting that which is a part of the prayer, the precaution is that he should maintain bodily composure, even though his prayer will be valid if it loses composure. However, the dhikr بِحَولِ اللهِ وَ قُوَّتِه أَقومُ و أَقعُدُ (bi Îawl illÁhi wa quwwatihi aqÙmu wa aq‘Ùdu) should be recited while standing up.
976. There is no problem in moving the hands or fingers during the qirÁÞah or the obligatory dhikr, although recommended precaution dictates that they too should remain stationary.
977. If a person involuntarily moves his body while reciting sÙrat al-FÁtiÎah, the second sÙrah or tasbÐÎÁt al-arba‘ah, in such a manner that his body loses its composure, recommended precaution dictates that once his body regains composure, he should repeat that which was recited in motion.
978. If a person loses the ability to stand in the midst of his prayer, but his inability does not persist until the end of the allocated time, he should offer his prayers whilst standing, once he is able to do so. However, if his inability persists until the end of the allocated time, he should offer the remainder of his prayer sitting. Similarly, if he is unable to offer his prayer sitting, he should offer it lying down. However, he should not begin with the qirÁÞah or the obligatory dhikr until the body has regained composure. The rulings of the recommended dhikr of this article and the following articles have been elaborated in article 975.
979. A person should not offer prayer sitting, so long as he is able to do so standing. For example, if a person cannot stop his body from shaking, or is compelled to lean on something, bend his body sideways, bend down, or spread his legs wider than usual, in such a manner that it is still deemed an instance of standing in these three cases, he should stand in whatever manner he is able to and offer his prayer. However, if he unable to stand in any manner, he should offer his prayer sitting in an upright position.
980. A person should not offer prayer lying down, so long as he is able to do so sitting. If he is unable to sit in an upright position, he should sit in any manner he can. If he is unable to sit in any manner, he should lie on his right side as elaborated in the articles relating to the rules of qiblah. If he is unable to do so, he should lie on his left side. If that too is not possible, he should lie on his back with the soles of his feet facing the qiblah.
981. If a person offers prayer sitting, but is able to perform rukÙ conventionally after reciting sÙrat al-FÁtiÎah and the latter sÙrah, or after tasbÐÎÁt al-arba‘ah, he should stand and then perform rukÙ. If he is unable to do so, he should perform rukÙ while sitting.
982. If a person offers prayer lying down, but is able to sit up during his prayer, he should offer his prayer sitting to the extent he can. Similarly, if he is able to stand during his prayer, he should stand for the duration he is able. He should not however commence with qirÁÞah or the obligatory dhikr until his body has stopped moving.
983. If a person offers his prayer sitting, but is able to stand during prayer, he should do so to the extent he can. He should not however commence with the qirÁÞah or the obligatory dhikr until his body has stopped moving.
984. If a person who is able to stand, fears that owing to his standing, he may develop an illness, or encounter harm, he may offer his prayer while sitting. If he fears the same from sitting, he may offer his prayer while lying down.
985. If a person deems it probable that he may be able to offer his prayer standing towards the end of the allocated time, it is better he delay his prayer. Then, if he was unable to stand, he should offer his prayer in a manner that accords to his duty (at that moment). Similarly, it is better that a person who can offer his prayer while lying on his side or his back at the onset of the allocated time, delay it and act according to his obligation towards the end of the allocated time.
If a person offers his prayer in its prime time, but later develops the ability to offer it standing or sitting, he should repeat his prayer according to his ability.
986. It is recommended to perpendicularly uphold one’s vertebral column and neck while standing, slacken the shoulders, place the hands on the thighs, conjoin the fingers and look at the place of sujÙd. He should also spread the weight of his body equally between his feet, keep both feet in line, and stand in humility and submission. If the one praying is a man, the distance between his feet should be between three open fingers to a hand span, whereas a woman should keep her feet together.