85. The urine and feces of the following species is najis: human beings, and animals whose meat is forbidden (to consume) and its blood gushes forth when its vein is slit.
The feces or droppings of the following species are ÔÁhir: animals whose meat is forbidden to consume, but its blood does not gush out, like those fish whose meat is forbidden, and small animals or insects which do not have any flesh, like mosquitoes and flies.
Based on recommended precaution, one should refrain from the urine of animals whose meat is forbidden and its blood does not gush out.
86. The urine and droppings of birds whose meat is forbidden, is ÔÁhir, but it is better to refrain from them based on precaution.
87. The urine and feces of an animal which subsists on najÁsah, and of a quadruped that has been defiled by a human being, and of a kid (a young goat) who was nursed by a pig—the details of which will be elaborated later—are najis. Similarly, based on obligatory precaution, the urine and feces of a lamb which has been nursed by a pig is also najis.