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    One of the services that a bank may provide to its clients is the realization of a bill of exchange in the following manner: prior to the due date, the bank informs the drawer of the presence of the bill at the bank, along with its number, amount and due date, so that the drawer may prepare the funds to honor the bill of exchange. Once the bank acquires the funds, it deposits the amount in the account of the drawee, or pays it to him in cash. It also charges a fee for rendering this service.
    One of the other services offered by a bank is cashing the checks presented by its client to the bank. The bank may charge a fee for rendering this service.

    2863. Processing bills of exchange and charging a fee for it can take certain forms:
    1. The drawer has deposited money with the bank, and there is a condition within the bill of exchange that the payee should take the bill of exchange to the drawee bank on its due date, and the bank will withdraw the amount written in the bill of exchange from the drawer’s account and pay it in cash to the payee, or deposit it in his account.
    This can be viewed as the process wherein the drawer refers his creditor to the bank, and since he has money deposited with the bank, and the bank is indebted to him, the transfer of liabilities is valid, and does not require an acceptance (from the bank).
    In this case, it is not permissible for the bank to charge a fee for paying its debt.
    2. The drawer transfers the liability of the amount mentioned in the bill of exchange to the bank, without having deposited an amount in the bank, or without the bank being indebted to him. This is a case of a transfer of liabilities to a debt-free person, one who is not indebted to the drawer, and is permissible.
    The bank in turn accepts the transfer of liabilities and pays the amount. It also charges a fee to the drawer for accepting the transfer of liabilities, and acquiring this fee is permissible.
    3. The payee presents the bill of exchange to the bank to claim the amount, without any transfer of liabilities by the drawer. This service can rendered as an instance of a service that is a subject of a ju‘¡lah, and to acquire a fee as a ju‘l (the item given in exchange for the service in a ju‘¡lah agreement) is permissible, given that the bank intervenes in acquiring the actual debt only. However, if it also determines a profit and a proportional interest for the debt, its intervention is not permissible.

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