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    227. If one attains certainty that the dress or body of a Muslim has become najis, or that a thing in his possession has become najis, and the Muslim then disappears, the thing is ÔÁhir provided one entertains the possibility that the Muslim could have washed the najis thing. Based on obligatory precaution, adhering to the following conditions is necessary:
    a. The Muslim should consider the thing that has made his body or dress najis, to be najis. Therefore, if for example, his wet dress comes in contact with a kÁfir, for example, but he does not consider it to be najis, one cannot consider that cloth to be ÔÁhir after the disappearance of the Muslim.
    b. He should know that his dress or body has contacted a najis thing, and he should not be one who is careless about the issue of ÔahÁrah and najÁsah.
    c. The person should see him using it for purpose in which the ÔahÁrah of the dress or the body is a condition. For example, he should see him praying in those clothes, or eating from that vessel.
    d. One should also consider it probable that the Muslim knows that ÔahÁrah is a condition for the thing in the act which he is performing with it. Therefore, if for example, he does not know that the clothes of one who is praying have to be ÔÁhir and one cannot pray with clothes that are najis, then one cannot consider those clothes to be ÔÁhir.
    e. The Muslim should be bÁligh.

    228. If a person attains certainty or satisfaction that a thing which was najis has become ÔÁhir, or two just individuals inform him of its ÔahÁrah, or one just individual, or if a person who is trustworthy informs him of its ÔahÁrah, and there is no reasonable doubt that his word is inaccurate, then that thing is ÔÁhir. The same applies if the person who possesses the najis thing states that it is ÔÁhir, provided that he is not accused of being careless about ÔahÁrah and najÁsah, and it also applies if a Muslim has washed a najis item, and it is not known if he washed it properly or not.

    229. If a person has been charged with the responsibility of washing a person’s clothes, states that he has washed the clothes, and one attains satisfaction in his statement, or if he is trustworthy and one does not have reasonable doubt that his word is inaccurate, then those clothes are ÔÁhir. However, if the cloth is in the person’s possession and he has not been accused of being careless about ÔahÁrah and najÁsah, then one does not necessarily have to attain satisfaction in his testimony.

    230. If a person is of a mental state wherein he does not attain certainty or satisfaction from washing a najis thing, he can suffice himself to the manner in which normal people make things ÔÁhir.

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