782. The location where the Kaaba is situated is the qiblah. Prayers must be offered facing the qiblah. If a person who is at a great distance stands in such a way that it is said he is facing the qiblah, it is sufficient. Similar is the case for other issues which must be performed facing the qiblah, such as the slaughtering of an animal.
783. A person who prays while standing must have his face, chest and stomach facing the qiblah. The recommended precaution is that the toes should also point towards the qiblah.
784. A person who has to pray while sitting should have his face, chest and stomach facing the qiblah.
785. A person who is unable to offer his prayer in a sitting position should lay on his right in such a manner that the front of his body faces the qiblah. If that is not possible, he should lay on his left in such a manner that the front of his body facing the qiblah. If he is unable to do to that, he must pray lying on his back with the sole of his feet facing the qiblah.
786. The iÎtiyÁÔ prayer, the forgotten tashahhud, the forgotten sajdah, and the sajdah al-sahw that is performed for the forgotten tashahhud, should all be performed while facing the qiblah. Based on recommended precaution, other instances of sajdah al-sahw should also be performed while facing the qiblah.
787. The recommended prayer that is prayed in a stationary position must be prayed facing the qiblah. However, it is not necessary to face the qiblah for the prayers that are performed while walking or riding, even though they may be for an obligatory nadhr.
788. One who wishes to pray must endeavor to determine the direction of the qiblah until he attains certainty or satisfaction, or is informed by the testimony of two just persons, or one trustworthy person, provided one does not have a reasonable doubt contrary to his statement. Similarly, one may use the qiblah used in Muslim cities for prayers or positioning the graves. If one finds himself devoid of these, he must endeavor to determine the qiblah, and act upon the information he attains though it be conjectural. He must act according to it even if the conjecture is obtained through the statement of a disbeliever or a corrupt person, who determined it based on scientific principles.
789. A person who merely has conjectural knowledge regarding the direction of the qiblah, cannot act on his knowledge if he is able to obtain more accurate information regarding its direction. For example, if a guest obtains conjectural knowledge regarding the direction of the qiblah through the statement of the host and is able to obtain more accurate information regarding it, he must not act based on the host’s statement.
790. It is sufficient for a person to pray in any direction if he does not possess any means to determine the direction of the qiblah, or despite his efforts, he was not even able to obtain conjectural knowledge regarding it. The recommended precaution is that he prays in all four directions if there is sufficient time.
791. If a person attains certainty, or that which has the ruling of certainty, or conjectural knowledge, that the direction of qiblah is in one of two directions, he must pray in both directions.
792. If a person intends to pray in more than one direction and wishes to offer two prayers which should be prayed in sequence, like the Ûuhr and ‘aÒr prayers, the recommended precaution is that he pray the first prayer in all the intended directions, and then commence with the second prayer.
793. If a person is unable to attain certainty or that which has the ruling of certainty about the direction of the qiblah, and wishes to perform an act, besides prayer, that requires him to face the qiblah, such as slaughtering an animal, based on obligatory precaution he must delay performing the act in the event that he is able to do so, so that he may locate the qiblah. If he is unable to do so or if delaying it will cause him hardship, he may act according to conjectural knowledge. If he is unable to attain conjectural knowledge, in the case where slaughtering the animal is necessary—for example, if he delays, he will lose his life—facing any direction shall be valid.