150. Water makes najis items ÔÁhir, given the following four conditions:
a. The water should be muÔlaq. Hence, muÃÁf water, like rose water or willow water, will not make a najis item ÔÁhir;
b. The water itself should be ÔÁhir;
c. The water should not become muÃÁf while it is being used to wash the najis item. Furthermore, in the last washing, its smell, color or taste should not change owing to the najis item. In washings other than the last one, there is no harm if it does so. For example, if an item must be washed twice, and its color, taste or smell changes in the first washing, and then it is made ÔÁhir with water that does not change, that item will become ÔÁhir;
d. After an item is washed with water, it should not contain the ayn al-najÁsah. Using qalÐl water to make an item ÔÁhir entails some more conditions which will be explained later.
151. If the interior of a vessel becomes najis, it should be washed three times with qalÐl water. If kurr or flowing water is used, once will be sufficient.
However, if a dog consumes a liquid from a vessel, it should first be scrubbed with ÔÁhir earth, and then, having the earth removed, it should be scrubbed with a mixture of earth and water. Combining both forms of scrubbing is based on obligatory precaution. Water should then be poured over the vessel to rinse off the earth, and then it should be washed once with kurr or flowing water, or twice—based on obligatory precaution—with qalÐl water. Similarly, if a vessel is licked by a dog, based on obligatory precaution, it should be made ÔÁhir in the aforementioned manner.
152. If the mouth of a vessel which has been licked by a dog, is narrow, and cannot be scrubbed with earth, a cloth or something similar should be tied around a stick, and used to scrub earth in the vessel, if possible. The earth should be removed, and the vessel should then be scrubbed with wet earth in a similar manner. Combining both forms of scrubbing are necessary based on obligatory precaution. If this is not possible, the scrubbing should be done by intensely shaking the vessel, followed by washing it in the manner described in the previous article.
153. If a pig consumes a liquid from a vessel, or a field-mouse dies in it, it should be washed seven times, be it with qalÐl, kurr or flowing water. A similar ruling will apply to a vessel which has been licked by a pig, based on obligatory precaution.
154. A vessel which has become najis because of wine should be washed three times, be it with qalÐl, kurr or flowing water. The recommended precaution is that it should be washed seven times.
155. If an earthenware which has been made with najis clay, or has absorbed najis water, is placed in kurr or flowing water, the areas which come in contact with the water will become ÔÁhir. If one wishes to make its interior ÔÁhir as well, it should remain in the kurr or flowing water to an extent that water penetrates all parts of it. If the earthenware is moist, such that it prevents water from reaching its interior, it should be allowed to dry and then placed in kurr or flowing water.
156. There are two ways of washing a najis vessel in qalÐl water:
a. The vessel should entirely be filled with water and emptied, three times.
b. An amount of water should be poured into the vessel, and then the vessel should be swirled in a manner that the water reaches all parts of it. The water should then be poured out. This process should be repeated three times.
157. If a large pot—like a cauldron—becomes najis, it becomes ÔÁhir if it is entirely filled with water and emptied, three times. Similarly, if water is poured from above in a manner that it covers all the najis areas, and then all of it is poured out, three times, it will become ÔÁhir. As an obligatory precaution, the vessel that is used to draw out the water should be washed prior to emptying the pot for the second and third time.
158. If najis copper or similar meltable items are washed with water, their exterior becomes ÔÁhir.
159. If a baking oven becomes najis with urine, and water is poured twice from above in a manner that it reaches all the najis areas, the oven will become ÔÁhir. If it becomes najis with something other than urine, and the ayn al-najÁsah is removed from it, it will then be sufficient to wash it once in the manner described above. The recommended precaution is that the water should be poured over it after the removal of the ayn al-najÁsah. It is better that a small hole is dug at the bottom of the oven, allowing the water to collect in it. The water should then be removed and the hole should be covered with ÔÁhir sand.
160. If a najis item is submerged in kurr or flowing water, in a manner that the water reaches all the najis parts, it will become ÔÁhir. As for clothes, carpets and similar items, wringing it or squeezing it in some manner—by massaging it or squashing it with the feet—is necessary. In the event that clothes or similar items become najis because of urine, washing it once in kurr or flowing water will be sufficient.
161. An item which has become najis with urine can be made ÔÁhir with qalÐl water in the following manner:
The water should be poured over the item and allowed to separate from it. If traces of urine do not remain on the item, the qalÐl water should be poured over it once again. In this manner the item will become ÔÁhir.
As for clothes, carpets and similar items, each time the remaining water should forced out of it by wringing it or using any similar method.
162. If a thing becomes najis with the urine of a suckling child who has not started to eat food, and water is poured once over it, whereby it reaches all the najis areas, the thing will become ÔÁhir. The recommended precaution is that water should be poured over it one more time. It is also not necessary to wring clothes, carpets or similar items in this case.
163. A thing which has become najis with something other than urine, can be made ÔÁhir with qalÐl water by pouring it once over the thing and allowing it to flow off, after the ayn al-najÁsah has been removed. The obligatory precaution is that the water should be poured over it after the ayn al-najÁsah has been removed. If the thing is a cloth or a similar item, the remaining water should flow off by wringing it or using any similar method.
164. If a thread woven mat is to be made ÔÁhir with water, be it qalÐl, kurr or flowing water, the excess water should be removed by wringing it or using a similar method.
165. If the exterior of wheat grains, rice, soaps or similar items, becomes najis, it can be made ÔÁhir by immersing it in kurr or flowing water. If the interior of these items becomes najis, it can be made ÔÁhir by following the process of making earthenware ÔÁhir, as suggested in article 155.
166. If a person doubts if najis water has penetrated the interior of a soap or not, its interior will be considered ÔÁhir.
167. If the exterior surface of rice, meat or any similar item becomes najis with something other than urine, it can be made ÔÁhir by placing it in a bowl, pouring water once over it and then emptying the bowl. Upon completion the bowl becomes ÔÁhir as well. If the thing becomes najis by urine, it is necessary to wash it twice.
If a cup or similar vessel becomes najis, be it by urine or something else, based on obligatory precaution, water should be poured over it three times, and then emptied. As for a thing which requires wringing for it to become ÔÁhir, like a dress, it should be wrung and the remaining water should be forced out of the item.
168. If a najis cloth which has been dyed with indigo or any other dye, is immersed in kurr or flowing water, or is washed in qalÐl water, it becomes ÔÁhir as long as muÃÁf water does not come out of it when it is wrung.
169. If a dress is washed in kurr or flowing water, and later black mud or something similar is observed on it, it will be ÔÁhir as long as one does not suspect that the black mud has prevented water from reaching the dress.
170. If bits of mud or soap are observed on a dress or similar item after it is washed, it will be ÔÁhir. However, if the najis water penetrates to the interior areas of a soap or mud, their exterior surface will be ÔÁhir, whilst the interior will be najis.
171. No najis item will become ÔÁhir as long as the ayn al-najÁsah is not removed from it. However there is no harm if the smell or taste of the najÁsah remains on it. Hence, if blood is removed from a cloth and then it is washed, it will become ÔÁhir even if the smell or color of the blood remains on it. However, if one suspects from the smell or color that particles of the najÁsah have remained on it, it will be najis.
172. If the najÁsah on a person’s body is removed by placing it in kurr or flowing water, the body becomes ÔÁhir. Washing it multiple times is not necessary, even in the case of urine.
173. If najis food remains between the teeth, and the mouth is rinsed in a manner that the water reaches all the areas around the najis food, its exterior becomes ÔÁhir.
174. If the najis hair on one’s head or face is washed with qalÐl water, the remaining water must wrung out of the hair.
175. If a najis body or cloth is washed with qalÐl water, the adjacent areas which are attached to it—and water usually flows to those areas when the body is washed—will also become ÔÁhir once the najis part becomes ÔÁhir. In other words, the adjacent areas do not have to be washed separately. Rather, upon being washed, the najis area and the adjacent areas become ÔÁhir together. The same will apply to a ÔÁhir item which is placed next to a najis item, and water is poured over both of them.
176. Najis meat or fat can be washed like all other items. The same applies to a body, cloth or any similar item which contains a small amount of a greasy substance, provided it does not prevent the water from reaching it.
177. If a utensil or one’s body—for example—is najis, and greasy enough to prevent water from reaching it, then the greasy substance should be removed prior to washing it, thereby allowing the water to reach the item.
178. A najis item that does not contain the essential najÁsah, becomes ÔÁhir if it is washed once under a tap that is connected to kurr. If the item does contain the ayn al-najÁsah, and it is removed by placing it under the tap or by any other means, and the water that flows from the item does not change its smell, color or taste owing to the najÁsah, it is rendered ÔÁhir with the tap water. However, if the smell, color or taste of the water changes owing to the najÁsah, a sufficient amount of tap water should be poured over it, until the water flowing away from the item does not change owing to the najÁsah.
179. If a person washes an item and attains certainty that it has become ÔÁhir, but later doubts if he removed the ayn al-najÁsah from it or not, he should wash it again and attain certainty or satisfaction that the ayn al-najÁsah has been removed.