1499. The following four phenomena make the prayer for signs—details of which will be elaborated later–obligatory:
1. A solar eclipse.
2. A lunar eclipse, regardless of whether it is a partial or full eclipse, or whether one is frightened or not.
3. An earthquake, regardless of whether one is frightened or not.
4. Instances of lightening, thunder, black or red winds or other similar celestial phenomena, if a majority of people are frightened by them. However, with regards to terrestrial phenomena, such as the receding of sea water, or the breaking and falling of a mountain, by which the majority of people are frightened, recommended precaution dictates that one should offer the prayer of signs.
1500. If more than one of the events for which the prayer for signs becomes obligatory occurs simultaneously, one should recite a separate prayer for signs for each event. For example, if there is a solar eclipse and an earthquake, one should recite one prayer for the solar eclipse, and one for the earthquake.
1501. If a person has a number of qaÃÁ prayers for signs that he is obligated to offer, it is not necessary for him to specify for which event he is offering the qaÃÁ, regardless of whether all of his qaÃÁ prayers are for one type of event, such as all of them being for solar eclipse, or whether they are for distinct events, such as one being for solar eclipse, and another being for lunar eclipse. However, recommended precaution dictates that he should specify which event he is offering the prayer for, though it be in an abstract manner. For example, he may make the intention of offerring the qaÃÁ for the first prayer of signs that became obligatory on him, or the second one to become obligatory on him.
1502. It is only obligatory for the people of the area in which the phenomena—for which the prayer for signs are obligatory—occurred to offer the prayer for signs. It is not obligatory on people in other areas to offer the prayer for signs which occurred elsewhere.
1503. The timeframe in which the prayer for signs must be offered in the event of a solar or lunar eclipse is from the moment the eclipse begins, until the time the disk of the sun or moon completely exists the eclipse. Recommended precaution dictates that one should not delay offerring the prayer until the eclipse starts declining from the sun or the moon. In fact, it is recommended for one to offer his prayer from the moment the eclipse begins.
1504. If a person delays his prayer until the point when the eclipse begins to decline from the disk of the sun or moon, his prayer will be adÁ. However, if he offers it after the entire disk has exited the eclipse, his prayer will be deemed qaÃÁ.
1505. If the total time of a solar or lunar eclipse is sufficient for offerring only one rak‘ah or less, the prayer for signs will be obligatory and adÁ. One’s prayer shall similarly be obligatory and adÁ if the time of the eclipse is greater than this, but he delays it until its last moments, when the time is only sufficient for one rak‘ah or less.
1506. One should offer the prayer for signs in the event of an earthquake or an instance of lightening, thunder, or any similar phenomenon, as previously elaborated. One should not delay his prayer in such a manner that it would commonly understood as being delayed. If one’s prayer is delayed, he should offer it and obligatory precaution dictates he should not make the intention of qaÃÁ or adÁ.
1507. If a person is oblivious of a solar or lunar eclipse, and realizes it after it has come to an end, he should offer its qaÃÁ if he discovers that it was a total eclipse. However, if he discovers that it was a partial eclipse, he will not be obligated to offer its qaÃÁ.
1508. If a group of people testify that there is a solar or lunar eclipse, and a person does not attain certainty or confidence in their testimony, and there is nobody within the group whose testimony is canonically authoritative, owing to which one does not offer the prayer for signs, but later transpires that their testimony was correct, then in the event it was a total solar or lunar eclipse, he should offer the prayer for signs. However, if it was a partial eclipse, he will not be obligated to offer it. The same will apply if two persons—whose being just is not known—testify to it, or one person—whose being trustworthy is unknown—testifies to it, and it later transpires that the two persons were in fact just, or the one person was trustworthy and there was no conjectural evidence contrary to his testimony.
1509. If a person becomes satisfied with the statement of those who declare that there is a solar or lunar eclipse based on scientific principles, he should offer the prayer for signs. The same will apply if such people declare that there shall be a solar or lunar eclipse at a particular time, and it shall remain for a particular duration, and one is satisfied with their statement, he should act according to his satisfaction.
1510. If a person realizes that the prayer for signs he offered was invalid, he should repeat it. If its time has lapsed, he should offer its qaÃÁ.
1511. If the prayer for signs becomes obligatory on a person during the time for his daily prayers, he may offer any one of the two if there is ample time remaining for both. However, if the time remaining for one of the two is constricted, he should offer that prayer first. If the time for both of them is constricted, he should offer his daily prayer first.
1512. If while engaged in his daily prayer, a person realizes that the time of the prayer for signs is constricted, he should complete his daily prayer if the time for it is also constricted. However, if there is ample time remaining for the daily prayer, he should break away from his daily prayer, offer the prayer for signs, and then offer his daily prayer.
1513. If while engaged in the prayer for signs, a person realizes that the time for his daily prayer is constricted, he should leave the prayer for signs, and offer the daily prayer. Upon completing the daily prayer, prior to performing an act that would invalidate prayer, he should continue the remaining portion of the prayer for signs, from the place that he had left it.
1514. If there is a solar or lunar eclipse, and a woman is in the state of ÎayÃ or nifÁs, the prayer for signs will not be obligatory on her, and she will not be obligated to offer its qaÃÁ. However in the case of those signs prayer adÁ time of which is not ristricted, such as an earthquake, or an instance of lightening or thunder, obligatory precaution dictates that she should offer it without stipulating the intention of qaÃÁ or adÁ after being purified.