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    47. MuÃÁf water, the details of which were explained in article 15, cannot make a najis object ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with muÃÁf water is void.

    48. MuÃÁf water, be its quantity less than kurr or more than it, becomes najis upon contacting a najis object. However, generalizing this ruling for large amounts of (muÃÁf) water is objectionable. If the water contacts a najis object with force, the amount that has touched the najis object will be najis, while the amount that has not, will remain ÔÁhir. For example, if rose water from a sprinkler is sprinkled over a najis hand, the amount that has reached the hand will be najis, while the amount which has not, will be ÔÁhir.

    49. If najis muÃÁf water is mixed with kurr water or flowing water in a manner that it can no longer be called muÃÁf water, it becomes ÔÁhir.

    50. Water which was originally muÔlaq and it is not known whether it has turned into muÃÁf water or not, will be treated as muÔlaq. It will make a najis object ÔÁhir and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with it will be valid. Water which was originally muÃÁf water, and it is not known whether it has turned into muÔlaq water or not, will be treated as muÃÁf water. It will not make najis objects ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with it will be invalid.

    51. Water about which it is not known whether it is muÔlaq or muÃÁf, and it is also not known whether it was originally muÔlaq or muÃÁf, will not make najis things ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ or ghusl performed with this water will be invalid. However if it comes in contact with a najis object and its quantity is equal to or more than kurr, it will be treated as ÔÁhir.

    52. When an ayn al-najÁsah like blood or urine contacts water, and changes its smell, color or taste, it becomes najis even if it is kurr or flowing water. However, if the smell, color or taste of the water changes owing to a najÁsah which is outside it—for example, if a carcass, which is lying beside the water, causes a change in its smell—the water will not become najis.

    53. Water in which ayn al-najÁsah such as urine or blood is poured, changing its smell, color or taste, is connected to kurr or flowing water, or if rain water falls on it, or is blown over it by the winds, or rain water falls on it through the drain spout while it is raining, the water will become ÔÁhir if the change vanishes. As a recommended precaution, rain water, kurr water, or flowing water should get mixed with it.

    54. If a najis object is made ÔÁhir in kurr or flowing water, the water which causes the object to become ÔÁhir and then separates from it, is itself ÔÁhir as well.

    55. Water which was originally ÔÁhir, and it is not known whether it has become najis or not, will be deemed ÔÁhir; and water which was originally najis, and it is not known whether it has become ÔÁhir or not, is najis.

    56. The leftovers (food or drink) of a dog, a pig, and a kÁfir other than the Ahl al-KitÁb, are najis and forbidden to consume. However, the leftovers of animals whose meat is forbidden to consume are ÔÁhir albeit makrÙh to consume, with the exception of cats ({^ It is not makrÙh to consume their leftovers. .^})

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