556. It is obligatory to give the following three ghusls to a dead body:
a. ghusl with water which is mixed with lotus leaves (sidr).
b. ghusl with water which is mixed with camphor (kÁfÙr).
c. ghusl with unmixed water.
557. The lotus leaves and camphor should not be so excessive whereby it makes the water muÃÁf. It should also not be so little such that one cannot state that they have been mixed with the water.
558. If a sufficient amount of lotus leaves or camphor cannot be acquired, recommended precaution dictates that the available amount should be mixed in the water.
559. If a person passes away in the state of iÎrÁm, be it for Hajj or ‘umrah, he should not be given ghusl with camphor water. In lieu of it, he should be given ghusl with unmixed water, unless he was in the state of iÎrÁm for Hajj, and had completed the saÞÐ, in which case he should be given ghusl with camphor water.
560. If lotus leaves, or camphor, or both are not available, or if using them is not permissible—like if it amounts to usurpation—in lieu of each of the items which is not available, obligatory precaution dictates that the corpse should be given ghusl with unmixed water with the intention of giving ghusl to it in lieu of the ghusl with the item that is not available. One should also perform tayammum on the corpse with the same intention.
561. The person giving the ghusl to the dead body should be a Muslim, a believer in the twelve Imams (Peace be upon them), sane, bÁligh, and aware of the rulings pertaining to the ghusl, even if he learns it whilst the ghusl is being performed.
562. The person giving the ghusl to a dead body should have the intention of drawing closer to Allah, as explained in the section on wuÃÙ, and should also have a sincere intention. It will suffice to maintain this intention until the completion of the third ghusl.
563. It is obligatory to give ghusl to the child of a Muslim, even if he was born out of wedlock. However, the ghusl, ÎunÙÔ, shrouding, and burial of a kÁfir or his offspring is not permissible.
As for one who was insane from childhood, and became bÁligh in that state, he should be given ghusl if both his parents or one of them is a Muslim, or if he is subject to the rulings of a Muslim for any other reason. Otherwise, giving ghusl to him is not permissible.
564. If a still-born baby is four months or older, it is obligatory to give ghusl to it. However, if it has not completed four months, and if life has not been breathed into it, obligatory precaution dictates that it should be wrapped in a cloth, and buried without giving ghusl to it.
565. It is not permissible for a man to give ghusl to a woman or vice-versa, and it renders the ghusl invalid. However, a wife can give ghusl to her husband, and so can he to her. The recommended precaution however, is that they should refrain from doing so.
566. A man can give ghusl to a young girl who is not of a discerning age, and similarly so can a woman give ghusl to a young boy who is not of a discerning age. The emphatic recommendation however, is that a boy who is more than three years of age be given ghusl by a man, and girl who is more than three years old be given ghusl by a woman.
567. If no man is available to give ghusl to a deceased man, then the women who are related to him and maÎram to him—like his mother, sister, paternal aunt or maternal aunt—or those who are related to him through marriage, or are maÎram to him through wet-nursing, can give the ghusl to him.
Similarly, if no woman is available to give ghusl to a deceased woman, men who are related to her and maÎram to her, or are related to her through marriage, or are maÎram to her through wet-nursing, can give ghusl to her. Obligatory precaution dictates as long as a member of the same gender is present, a maÎram of the opposite gender will not take his or her place.
It is also not obligatory to give ghusl from under a dress, although the precaution is that it should be done so. However, one should not look at the private parts, and based on precaution the private parts should be covered.
568. If the deceased and the one giving ghusl are both men, or they are both women, it is permissible to leave the body of the deceased bare, except for the private parts.
569. Looking at the private parts of a dead person—except for a husband and wife—is forbidden. If the person giving ghusl looks at it, he will have committed a sin, although the ghusl will be valid.
570. If any part of a dead person’s body is najis, it should be made ÔÁhir through the process elaborated in article 378. In fact, it is better to make ÔÁhir every part prior to washing it; rather it is better to make the entire body ÔÁhir prior to starting the ghusl.
571. The ghusl for a dead body is like the ghusl of janÁbah, and the obligatory precaution is that as long as sequential ghusl is possible, the dead body should not be given ghusl by immersion. In the sequential ghusl, (washing) the right side should precede the left side, and one is free to choose between pouring water over the body or submerging the body in water.
572. It is not necessary to give the ghusl of janÁbah or ÎayÃ to someone who died in the state of janÁbah or ÎayÃ; rather the ghusl given to a dead body will be sufficient.
573. It is not permissible to accept wages for giving ghusl to a dead body, and if a person gives ghusl for the wages, the ghusl will be invalid. However, it is permissible to accept wages for performing the non-essential pre-requisites of the ghusl.
574. If water is not available, or if using it is not permissible, tayammum should be performed on the dead body in lieu of every ghusl. Obligatory precaution dictates that a (fourth) tayammum should also be performed in lieu of all the three ghusls. If the person who is performing the tayammum, makes the intention of mÁ fÐ al-dhimmah—that is, he makes the intention that I am performing this tayammum to fulfill that which I am in reality responsible for performing—then the fourth tayammum will not be necessary.
575. One who is performing the tayammum on the dead body should strike his own palms on the earth and wipe his palms over the face of the dead body and the back side of his hands. If possible, based on obligatory precaution, he should also perform the tayammum with the palms of the deceased as well.