804. There are six conditions for the clothing that is worn during prayer:
1. It should be ÔÁhir.
2. It should be mubÁÎ (not usurped).
3. It should not be made from the parts of a dead body.
4. It should not be made from an animal whose meat is forbidden.
5. If the person offering prayers is a male, his clothing should not be of pure silk.
6. If the person offering prayers is a male, his clothing should not be embroidered with gold, the details of which shall be explained later.
805. The clothing worn during prayer must be ÔÁhir. If one prays with najis clothing or a najis body despite having alternatives, his prayer is invalid.
806. If a person does not know—due to his own culpability—that praying with najis clothing or a najis body renders the prayer invalid, and he prays with a najis cloth or najis body, his prayer will be invalid.
807. If a person is unaware of an item being najis due to ignorance of its ruling—for example, he is unaware that the sweat of a disbeliever who is not an Ahl al-KitÁb is najis—and prays with it, his prayer is invalid is the case he is a culpable ignorant.
808. If a person is oblivious of his body or clothing being najis and realizes it after the completion of his prayer, his prayer is valid. Based on recommended precaution, if he realizes within the time frame of prayer, he should repeat his prayer.
809. If a person forgets that his body or clothing is najis and realizes it during his prayer or after it, he must repeat his prayer. If the time for prayer has elapsed, he must perform its qaÃÁ.
810. If the body or clothes of a person who is engaged in prayer become najis, and he realizes it before praying anything of the prayer with the najÁsah, provided he has ample time remaining, and given that washing his clothes or body, or changing his clothes, or taking off his clothes does not break the form of his prayer, he should—in the midst of his prayer—either:
a. wash his clothes or body
b. or, change his clothes
c. or, take off his clothes if something is covering his private parts.
The same will apply if he realizes that his clothes or body has become najis, but doubts if it became najis at that moment or it was najis from before.
However, if it turns out that washing his body or clothes, or changing his clothes, or taking off his clothes breaks the form of his prayer, or if he removes his clothes, it will expose his private parts, his prayers will have been rendered invalid. Subsequently he should offer his prayers again with ÔÁhir clothes and a ÔÁhir body.
811. A person who begins his prayer while there is nominal time remaining, must render his body or clothing ÔÁhir by means of water or changing his clothes if doing so will not invalidate his prayer:
a. If his body or clothing becomes najis and he realizes that it has become najis before having prayed anything of his prayer.
b. If his body or clothing are najis but he doubts as to whether they were najis from before or whether they became najis during that time
If another article of clothing is covering his private parts, he should remove the najis clothing and complete his prayer. However, if there is no other article of clothing covering his private parts and he cannot change his clothes, nor render them ÔÁhir by means of water, it is an obligatory precaution that he complete his prayer with the najis clothing.
812. If the body of a person who is engaged in prayer becomes najis, and he realizes it before praying anything of the prayer with the najÁsah, given that there is nominal time remaining, he should:
Wash his body, if doing so does not break the form of his prayer.
Continue praying in the same state (of najÁsah), if washing his body breaks the form of his prayer. In this case, his prayer will be valid.
The same will apply if he realizes that his body has become najis, but doubts if it became najis at that moment or was najis from before.
813. If a person doubts whether his body or clothes are ÔÁhir, and does not have certainty, or that which has the ruling of certainty of it previously being najis, and he prays in such a condition, his prayer is valid even if he later realizes that it had in fact become najis.
814. If a person washes his clothes with water and attains certainty, or that which has the ruling of certainty of it being ÔÁhir, and prays with that clothing, his prayer is in order even if he later realizes that it had not become ÔÁhir.
815. If a person finds blood on his body or clothing, and has certainty that it is not amongst the blood which is considered najis—for example, he is certain that it is the blood of a mosquito—and if he realizes after prayer that it was in fact amongst the blood that prayer cannot be offered with, his prayer is valid.
816. If a person is certain that the blood on his body or clothing is najis, but amongst the blood that is permissible for one to pray in—for example the blood of a wound or that of a boil—his prayer is valid even if he later realizes that it was in fact amongst the blood that prayer cannot be offered with.
817. If a person forgets that an item is najis, and his body or clothing contacts it with wetness, and he prays in the state of forgetfulness (of the najÁsah), but remembers it again after the completion of his prayer, his prayer is valid.
However, if a person’s body makes a moist contact with an item, the najÁsah of which he has forgotten, and he proceeds to perform ghusl and offer prayers without having washed the najÁsah, both his ghusl and prayer will be invalid. The only exception is the case wherein performing ghusl causes his body to become ÔÁhir as well; for example, performing ghusl with mu‘taÒam water, the water which does not become najis upon contacting najÁsah, such as kurr or flowing water.
Similarly, if a person’s bodily parts of wuÃÙ make a moist contact with an item, the najÁsah of which he has forgotten, and he performs wuÃÙ’ and offers prayers prior to making that part ÔÁhir, both his wuÃÙ and prayer will be invalid. The only exception is the case wherein he performs wuÃÙ in such a manner that the parts of wuÃÙ become ÔÁhir as well, as in the case of performing wuÃÙ with mu‘taÒam water.
818. If a person only has one set of clothing, and both his body and clothes become najis, and the water in his possession is solely sufficient to make one of them ÔÁhir, based on precaution, he must make his body ÔÁhir and pray with najis clothing except in the following two cases:
a. If the najÁsah of the body is less than that of the clothing.
b. If one washing is required to make the body ÔÁhir, whilst two washings are required to make the clothing ÔÁhir.
In the above cases, rendering the clothes ÔÁhir takes precedence.
819. A person who only has one set of clothing and it is najis, must pray with the najis clothing and his prayer is valid.
820. If a person has two articles of clothing and knows that one of the two is najis, but does not know which of the two, he must pray with both of them, if there is ample time at his disposal. For example, if a person wishes to perform Ûuhr and ‘aÒr prayers, he must perform Ûuhr with each article and likewise ‘aÒr. However, if the time left is nominal, he must pray with either one of the two, and after completing his prayer, he must either pray with the other article or with clothing that is ÔÁhir.
821. The clothing a person utilizes to conceal his private parts whilst praying must be mubÁÎ (not usurped). If a person who knows that the utilization of usurped clothing is forbidden, or due to his negligence did not learn the ruling that wearing usurped clothing is prohibited, knowingly conceals his private parts by means of usurped clothing, his prayer is invalid.
However, in the following cases, the utilization of usurped clothing does not cause the invalidation of prayer, though the precaution is that it should be avoided:
a. When the article of clothing is insufficient to conceal the private parts.
b. When the article of clothing is sufficient for concealing the private parts, but is not being worn during prayer, like a large handkerchief or a loincloth that is in one’s pocket, given that it does not move along with the movement of the one who is praying. However, if it moves along with his movements, then praying in it would be problematic.
c. When a usurped article of clothing is utilized for other than concealing the private parts.
822. If a person knows that the utilization of usurped clothing is forbidden, but does not know that using it to conceal the private parts during prayer invalidates the prayer, and he intentionally utilizes it whilst praying, his prayer is invalid.
823. If a person utilizes usurped clothing to conceal his private parts during prayer, but he is unaware that it is usurped, his prayer is valid. Similarly, the prayer of a person who forgetfully utilizes usurped clothing and he is not the usurper, is valid.
However, if one who usurped the clothing himself, forgets that he usurped it, and utilizes it to conceal his private parts, his prayer is invalid if he has not repented for usurping it. If he has repented, to claim that his prayer is invalid is problematic.
824. If a person does not know or forgets that his clothing is usurped, and realizes it whilst praying, he must remove the usurped clothing if his private parts are concealed by means of another article of clothing, and he is immediately able to remove the usurped clothing or he is able to do so without breaking the muwÁlÁt sequence of the prayer.
One must break his prayer and pray with clothes that are not usurped as long as there is sufficient time for at least one rak‘ah if:
a. There is nothing else concealing his private parts.
b. Or, he is unable to immediately remove the usurped clothing.
c. Or, removing the clothing would break the sequence of the prayer.
However, if the time left is insufficient for even one rak‘ah, he must take off the article of clothing while praying, and observe the rulings of those who pray unclothed as discussed in article 803.
825. If a person prays with usurped clothing to save his life, or for example prays with usurped clothing to avoid its theft, his prayer is valid even though it may cover his private parts.
826. If a person purchases clothing with the very money on which khums has not been paid, then the ruling of praying with such clothing is that of praying with usurped clothing.
827. The clothing worn during prayer should not be made from the parts of a carcass of an animal that has gushing blood (an animal whose blood gushes forth when its vein is cut). In fact, based on obligatory precaution, one should not even wear clothing which is made from the parts of the carcass of an animal that does not have gushing blood, such as a fish or a snake.
828. If a person prays while carrying with himself a part of a carcass that contains life, such as a piece of meat or skin, based on precaution his prayer is invalid even if it is not a part of his clothing.
829. If a person prays while carrying with himself a part that has no life—such as hair or wool, both of which do not contain life—from the carcass of an animal that is permissible to consume, his prayer is valid.
830. The clothing worn during prayer should not be made from parts of an animal whose meat is forbidden (to consume). Even if the hair of such an animal be on the body or clothing of a person, his prayer is invalid.
831. If the saliva, nasal fluid, or any other bodily fluid from an animal whose meat is forbidden—such as a cat—is on the body or clothing of a person, given that it is still wet, his prayer is invalid. However, if it has dried in such a manner that its essence is removed, his prayer is valid.
832. There is no problem if the hair, sweat, saliva or nasal fluid of another person is on the body or clothing of one who is praying. Similarly, there is no problem if he has a pearl, bee wax or honey with him.
833. If a person doubts whether his clothing is made from an animal whose meat is permissible (to eat) or forbidden, it is permissible to pray with it, regardless of whether it was acquired in an Islamic country or a non-Islamic country.