794. A man must cover his private parts during prayer even if no one is able to see him. The recommended precaution is that he should also cover the area between his navel and his knees during prayer.
795. A woman must cover her entire body during prayer, including her head and hair. The recommended precaution is that she should also cover the soles of her feet. It is not however necessary for her to cover the part of her face which is washed in wuÃÙ’, or her hands up to the wrist, or her feet up to the ankles. Nevertheless, in order to ensure that the parts of the body which have to be covered are actually covered, she should cover a portion of the sides of her face and a portion that is lower than her wrists and ankles.
796. A person who intends to offer the qaÃÁ for a forgotten sajdah or a forgotten tashahhud or a sajdah al-sahw for the qaÃÁ of a forgotten tashahhud, should cover his body as he would do so while praying. The recommended precaution is that he must do the same while offering sajdah al-sahw for other than the aforementioned case.
797. The prayers of a person who deliberately or on account of not knowing—in the case where he is culpable for falling short in his efforts to learn the ruling—did not cover his private parts while praying, are invalid.
798. A person who realizes in the midst of his prayer that his private parts are visible should cover them immediately. Based on obligatory precaution, he should complete his prayer and then repeat it. However, if he realizes after the completion of his prayer, that his private parts were visible during the prayer, his prayer is valid. Similarly his prayer is valid if while praying he realizes that his private parts were previously visible, but are covered at the time of his realization.
799. If the clothes of a person cover his private parts while he is standing, but may not do so in another position, such as rukÙ‘ or sujÙd, his prayer is valid if he is able to conceal them by some other means. However, the recommended precaution is that he should not pray with such clothes.
800. It is permissible for a person to cover himself with grass or the leaves of a tree. However, the recommended precaution is that he should do so only when he has no alternative.
801. If a person has nothing other than mud to conceal his private parts, based on obligatory precaution, he must pray the normal prayers by covering his private parts with mud, and also offer the prayer of the unclothed under compulsion.
802. If a person does not have anything to cover himself, and entertains the possibility that he may find something before the time of prayer comes to an end, the recommended precaution is that he delay his prayer. If he does not find anything, he should pray near the end of its time in accordance with his responsibilities. He may also pray at the commencement of the prayer time. In such a case, if he does not find anything by the end of the prayer time, his prayer is valid. If he manages to do so, he must repeat his prayer.
803. If a person who intends to pray does not have anything to cover his private parts, not even mud or slime, he may pray standing provided that no discerning individual is looking at his private parts. Based on obligatory precaution, he should place his hand over his private parts, and make a sign to indicate rukÙ‘ and sujÙd. Based on obligatory precaution, the sign made for sujÙd must be of a greater degree. If a discerning individual can see him, he should pray sitting and perform rukÙ‘ and sujÙd by makind signs. Based on obligatory precaution, the sign made for sujÙd must be of a greater degree.