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    57. It is obligatory for a mukallaf conceal his private parts when relieving himself and at all other times from individuals who can distinguish good from evil, even if they are maÎram to him, be they mukallaf or not. However, a husband and wife are exempted from this obligation.

    58. It is not necessary for a person to conceal his private parts with any particular item. It will be sufficient, for example, if he conceals them with his hand.

    59. When relieving oneself, nor should the front part of one’s body, meaning the chest and the stomach, face the qiblah, nor should the back part face it.

    60. If a person relieves himself with the front part of his body or the back facing the qiblah, but turns the private parts away from that direction, it will not be sufficient. Similarly, when the front part of the body or the back does not face qiblah, as an obligatory precaution, he should not allow the private parts to face that direction or have its back towards it.

    61. The recommended precaution is that one should not face the qiblah or have one's back towards it while performing istibrÁ’ , nor at the time of purifying the front and back orifices.

    62. If one is compelled to choose between revealing the private parts to someone who is not a maÎram to them and between facing or giving his back to the qiblah, then guarding his private parts is obligatory. Additionally, it is an obligatory precaution that in this case he should sit with his back facing the qiblah. The same ruling applies if he is forced to sit facing the qiblah or with his back to the qiblah for any other reason.

    63. It is a recommended precaution that even a child should not be made to sit with his face or back facing the qiblah while relieving himself. However if the child positions himself in that direction, it is not obligatory to divert him.

    64. It is forbidden to relieve oneself in the following four places:
    a. In blind alleys, without the permission of the people who live there;
    b. On the property (land) of a person who has not granted permission for the purpose;
    c. At a place which is dedicated exclusively for its beneficiaries, like some schools and seminaries;
    d. In places which will result in violating the sanctity of a believer or one of the sacred religious places.

    65. In the following three cases, the back orifice can only be made ÔÁhir with water:
    1. If another najÁsah, like blood, is excreted along with the feces.
    2. If an external najÁsah reaches the orifice.
    3. If the soiled area around the orifice is more than the normal area.
    In the cases other than those mentioned above, the back orifice can be made ÔÁhir either by water or by using a cloth, a stone or other similar items in a manner which will be explained. It is always better to wash it with water ({^For further details see articles 68 to 70.^}).

    66. The front orifice cannot be made ÔÁhir without water. If one uses kurr or running water, then washing the orifice once will suffice. However, if one uses under-kurr water, then the obligatory precaution is to wash it twice, and it is better to wash it three times. Areas other than the natural orifice should be washed more than once.

    67. If the back orifice is washed with water, one should ensure that no particles of the feces are left on it. However, there is no harm if the colour or the smell remains. In fact, if it is washed thoroughly in the first instance, leaving no particles of stool, then it is not necessary to wash it again.

    68. The back orifice can be made ÔÁhir with a stone, clod, cloth or similar items provided they are dry and ÔÁhir. Additionally there is no objection if there is slight moisture on it which does not reach the orifice.

    69. The recommended precaution is that back orifice should be made ÔÁhir using three pieces of stone, clod or cloth. One can also suffice himself with one piece if the orifice is made completely clean with it. On the other hand, if the orifice does not become clean using three pieces, more pieces should be used until the orifice becomes completely clean. However, there is no objection if traces of the stool which usually remain upon cleansing with a stone or similar items, remain in that area.

    70. It is forbidden to make the back orifice ÔÁhir using objects whose reverence is obligatory, such as a paper on which the name of God, the prophets and the infallible imams (Peace be upon them all), and objects other than these whose reverence has been made obligatory by religious legislation. However, if someone performs istinjÁÞ with such objects, the area becomes ÔÁhir.
    The realization of ÔahÁrah in the process of istnijÁÞ through the use of bones and dung is objectionable.

    71. If a person doubts whether he has made the orifice ÔÁhir or not, it is obligatory for him to make it ÔÁhir, even if he always used to purify the area immediately after relieving himself.

    72. If a person doubts after prayers if he purified the orifice before prayers or not, in the event that he is not certain of any heedlessness on his part with respect to making the orifice ÔÁhir before prayers, his prayers are valid. However, the orifice will be treated as najis.

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