1461. The imam of a congregational prayer should be bÁligh, sane, a twelver Shi’a, just, of legitimate birth, and he should be able to recite the qira’ah of prayer correctly if a follower has joined him in congregation in first or second rak‘ah and the recitation of the follower is correct, too. The same will apply based on obligatory precaution in other cases.
If the follower is a male, the imam too, must be a male. It is makrÙh for a woman to lead another woman in congregational prayer in other than the prayer for the dead. In the event there is nobody more meritorious to lead the prayer for the deceased than a woman, it is not makrÙh. There is no problem in a discerning child, who can discern good from evil, following another discerning child in congregational prayer. To accord it the effects accorded to a congregational prayer would not be devoid of good cause, albeit the more precautionary measure would be to avoid doing so.
1462. If a person knew an imam to be just, but now doubts whether he is still just or not, he may pray behind him in congregation.
1463. A person who offers his prayer in a standing position cannot join congregational prayer behind a person who offers it sitting or lying down.
A person who offers his prayer in sitting position cannot pray in congregation behind a person who offers it lying down.
1464. A person offering his prayer in a sitting position may follow another person offering it in a sitting position in congregational prayer. Similarly, a person offering his prayer lying down may follow another person who is offering it lying down. A person who offers his prayer in a sitting position may follow a person who offers it standing, in congregational prayer. However, a person who offers it lying down, should not follow a person who offers it sitting in congregational prayer.
1465. If the imam offers his prayer with najis clothing, or tayammum, or the wuÃÙ of jabÐrah owing to a justified excuse, one may follow him in congregational prayer.
1466. If the imam suffers from urinal or fecal incontinence, it is permissible to follow him in congregational prayer. Similarly, a woman who is not mustaÎÁÃah may follow a mustaÎÁÃah in congregational prayer.
1467. It is makrÙh to offer congregational prayer behind an imam who has leprosy or vitiligo. To offer congregational prayer behind a person who has been punished by Islamic penal law (Hadd) is also impermissible.