709. If one fails to wipe even a small part of his forehead or the back of his hands, his tayammum will be invalid, regardless of whether he fails to do so intentionally or is ignorant of the rulings, or fails to do so out of forgetfulness. However one does not have to be very particular; rather as long the entire forehead and the back of the hands are considered to have been wiped, it will be sufficient.
710. In order for one to be certain that he has wiped the entire back of his hands, he should also wipe a part of the area above the wrist. However it is not necessary to wipe between the fingers.
711. The forehead and the back of the hands should be wiped starting from above and going downwards, and its acts should be performed successively. If the interval between each act is so long that it can no longer be claimed that the person is performing tayammum, his tayammum will be void.
712. In his intention, a person must specify whether his tayammum is in lieu of ghusl or in lieu of wuÃÙ. If it be in lieu of ghusl, he must specify the ghusl, and if he does so in a general manner—for example, he makes the intention that the tayammum that he is performing is in lieu of the first thing that became obligatory on him, or the second one—it will suffice.
If only one tayammum is obligatory on him, and he makes the intention of performing his actual duty, it will be valid even if he had made a mistake in determining it.
713. Recommended precaution dictates that the forehead, the palms and the back of the hands be ÔÁhir, if possible.
714. To perform tayammum, a person should remove the rings from his fingers. If there is an impediment on his forehead, palms or the back of his hands, he should remove it as well, such as anything thing that is stuck to those areas.
715. If there is a wound on the forehead or the back of the hands, and he cannot unbandage the cloth or similar bandage that is tied around it, he should wipe his hands over them. Similarly, if there is a wound on a palm, and one is unable to unbandage the cloth or similar bandage that is on his palm, obligatory precaution dictates that he strikes his palms with the cloth on the thing on which tayammum is valid, and wipe it over his forehead and the back of his hands. He should then do the same (strike and wipe) with the back of his hands.
716. There is no harm if a person has hair growth on his forehead or the back of his hands. However, if the hairs from his head fall on the forehead, he should push them back.
717. If a person entertains the possibility that there may be an impediment on his forehead, his palms or the back of his hands, and this possibility is considered reasonable amongst the people, he should inspect them until he attains certainty or satisfaction that no such impediment exists in those areas. In fact, should a trustworthy person inform him that no such impediment exists, it will suffice as long as there is no reasonable doubt contrary to his statement.
718. If a person’s duty is to perform tayammum, and he is incapable of doing so—even to the extent of placing his hands on the sand—he should seek assistance. If he is unable to perform tayammum even with assistance, he should appoint a representative. The person who is appointed as his representative should give tayammum to the person with the person’s own hands. If this is not possible either, the representative should strike his own hands on the thing on which tayammum is valid and then wipe it over the afflicted persons forehead and the back of his hands. As for the intention, the person himself should make the intention, and obligatory precaution dictates that so should the representative.
719. If a person doubts whilst performing the tayammum whether he has forgotten to perform a part of it or not, he should not pay heed to his doubt if he has passed that stage. If he has not, he should perform that part.
720. Having wiped the left hand, if a person doubts whether he performed his tayammum correctly or not, his tayammum will be deemed valid as long as he considers it probable that he was not oblivious while performing tayammum. If his doubt is with respect to wiping the left hand, he should wipe it, unless he has already engaged himself in an act for which ÔahÁrah is a prerequisite, or if maintaining succession (muwÁlÁt) is no longer possible. However, if he doubts whether he wiped his left hand properly or not, his tayammum will be deemed valid.
721. If a person’s duty is to perform tayammum, he cannot perform tayammum for a prayer before the time for the prayer sets in. However, if he performs tayammum for another obligatory or recommended act, and his excuse persists until the time of prayer, he can offer his prayer with that tayammum as long as he does not have hope in being divested of the excuse prior to the end of the allocated time. If he does have hope in it, offering prayer with that tayammum is problematic.
722. If a person’s duty is to perform tayammum, and he does not have any hopes of being divested from his excuse prior to the end of the allocated time, he can offer his prayer with tayammum even though there may be a lot of time left. However, if he has not lost hope in it, he should delay offering his prayer. If his excuse is removed, he should offer his prayer with wuÃÙ or ghusl. If not, he should offer his prayer with tayammum towards the end of the allocated time.
723. If a person who is unable to perform wuÃÙ or ghusl, attains certainty or satisfaction that he will be divested of his excuse, he cannot offer his qaÃÁ prayers with tayammum. If he does not, he can perform his qaÃÁ prayer with tayammum. However, should he be divested of his excuse later on, he will have to offer those prayers again with wuÃÙ or ghusl.
724. A person who is unable to perform wuÃÙ or ghusl can offer the nÁfilah prayers which are to be offered at a particular time, with tayammum, as long as he does not have hope of being divested of his excuse before the end of its allocated time. If he has not lost hope in it, obligatory precaution dictates that he offer the prayer towards the end of its allocated time.
725. If a person whose duty based on obligatory precaution is to perform the ghusl of jabÐrah along with tayammum, offers his prayer after performing ghusl and tayammum, and after his prayer commits an act that breaks his wuÃÙ, like urinating, he should out of precaution perform tayammum in lieu of ghusl for the subsequent prayer, and perform wuÃÙ as well. If the act which breaks wuÃÙ occurs prior to his prayer, he should perform wuÃÙ and tayammum for that prayer as well.
726. If a person performs tayammum because water is unavailable, or owing to another excuse, his tayammum becomes invalid once the excuse ceases to exist
727. The things that invalidate wuÃÙ also invalidate the tayammum that is performed in lieu of wuÃÙ, and similarly, the things that invalidate ghusl also invalidate the tayammum that is performed in lieu of ghusl.
728. If a number of ghusls are obligatory on a person who is unable to perform ghusl, it will be sufficient for him to perform one tayammum in lieu of the ghusl of janÁbah, if the ghusl of janÁbah is one of them. If the ghusl of janÁbah is not one of them, he should perform a tayammum in lieu of each of the ghusls.
729. If a person who cannot perform ghusl wishes to perform an act for which ghusl is obligatory, he should perform tayammum in lieu of the ghusl. Similarly, if a person who is unable to perform wuÃÙ wishes to perform an act for which wuÃÙ is obligatory, he should perform tayammum in lieu of wuÃÙ.
730. If a person performs tayammum in lieu of the ghusl of janÁbah, it will not be necessary for him to perform wuÃÙ. However, if he performs tayammum in lieu of other ghusls, he should perform wuÃÙ as well. If he is unable to perform wuÃÙ, he should perform another tayammum in lieu of the wuÃÙ.
731. If a person performs tayammum in lieu of the ghusl of janÁbah, and then commits an act which invalidates wuÃÙ, he should perform tayammum in lieu of ghusl for subsequent prayers if he is unable to perform ghusl for them. The recommended precaution is that he perform wuÃÙ as well. The same ruling applies to the tayammum that is performed in lieu of a ghusl which is obligatory due to a major Îadath other than janÁbah—such as ÎayÃ, nifÁs and touching a dead body—with the exception that he must perform wuÃÙ as well.
732. If a person has to perform a tayammum in lieu of ghusl and another in lieu of wuÃÙ to perform a particular act, such as offering prayer, he does not have to perform a third tayammum with the intention of being able to perform that act. However, if he performs the first tayammum with the intention that it is lieu of ghusl or wuÃÙ, and the second tayammum with the intention of mÁ fÐ al-dhimmah—that which he is truly responsible for—he will have acted in accordance with precaution.
733. If a person whose duty is to perform tayammum, performs tayammum for a particular purpose, he can also perform other acts for which wuÃÙ or ghusl is obligatory as long as his tayammum is valid and his excuse persists. However, if his excuse was the lack of time, or if despite having water, he performed tayammum to offer the prayer for the dead or for sleeping, then he can only perform the acts for which he performed the tayammum.
734. It is better for a person to offer the qaÃÁ of the prayers that he offered with tayammum in the following five cases:
1. He intentionally placed himself in the state of janÁbah, and fearing harm from using water, he offered his prayer with tayammum.
2. Despite knowing or speculating that he may not be able to locate water, he intentionally placed himself in the state of janÁbah, and then offered his prayer with tayammum.
3. He did not go searching for water until the end of the allocated time, and then offered his prayer with tayammum, only to realize that had he gone searching, he may have found some water.
4. He intentionally delayed offering his prayer, and eventually offered it at the end of the allocated time with tayammum.
5. Despite knowing or speculating that he would not be able to find any water, he spilt the water that he had and offered his prayer with tayammum.