196. If a najis thing gets transformed into a ÔÁhir thing, such that the common understanding would be that it has undergone a change in its essential properties—for example, a piece of najis wood burns and is reduced to ashes, or the body of a dog falls into a salt marsh and is decomposed into salt—it is ÔÁhir. However, if its essential properties do not change—for example, if najis wheat is ground into flour or baked into bread—it will not be ÔÁhir.
197. Clay pots which have been made from najis clay, are najis. The recommended precaution is that one should refrain from charcoal which has been obtained from najis wood.
198. If a person doubts whether a najis item has undergone istiÎÁlah or not, in the event that the reason for the doubt is uncertainty as to whether the najis subject has remained or not, the item will be najis.