1. A person enters the state of janÁbah during a night of the month of Ramadan, and according to the details which were elaborated in article 1638, fails to wake up from his second or third sleep until the fajr adhÁn.
2. A person does not commit any act that invalidates his fast, however he either fails to make the intention to fast, or is ostentatious in his intention, or actually intends it not to be a fast, or intends to commit an act which invalidates the fast.
3. A person forgets to perform the ghusl of janÁbah during the month of Ramadan, and in that state observes a fast for one day, or for a few days.
4. A person, without investigating personally whether it has dawned or not, commits an act which invalidates his fast, only to realize later on that it had in fact dawned. Similarly, if a person after investigating speculates that it has dawned, or doubts whether it has dawned or not, and then commits an act which invalidates his fast, only to realize later on that it had dawned, the qaÃÁ of that day’s fast will be obligatory on him.
5. Another person informs him that it has not dawned, and the subject commits an act which invalidates his fast, realizing later on that it had already dawned.
6. Another person states that it has dawned, and a person does not attain certainty in his statement, or thinks that he is joking, and commits an act that invalidates his fast, only to realize later on that it had already dawned.
7. A blind person, or persons similar to him, breaks his fast at the word of another person, but later realizes that it was not the time of maghrib.
8. Despite clear skies, a person attains certainty that time of maghrib has set in owing to the darkness in the sky, and breaks his fast only to realize later on that the time of maghrib had not yet set in. However, if a person breaks his fast on a cloudy evening, thinking that it is the time of maghrib, but later realizes that it was not, he will not have to fast its qaÃÁ.
9. A person rinses his mouth with the intention of cooling himself, or for no good reason, and ends up swallowing the water involuntarily. However, if he had forgotten that he was fasting, and swallows the water, or rinses his mouth for the wuÃÙ of an obligatory prayer, and swallows it involuntarily, then the qaÃÁ of that fast will not be obligatory on him.
10. A person breaks his fast owing to duress, an emergency, or taqiyyah (dissimulation).