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    242. It is obligatory to wash the face and the hands, and wipe the front part of the head and the top surface of the feet, in wuÃÙ.

    243. The length of the face must be washed, starting from the top of the forehead, where the hair starts to grow, to the bottom of the chin. Its width, which is the facial area covered by the area between the tips of the thumb and the middle finger, should also be washed. In order to ensure that the prescribed area has been completely washed, one should also wash a part of the adjacent areas.

    244. If a person’s face or hands are bigger or smaller than normal, he should observe the area covered by ordinary people when washing their faces, and he too should wash to the same extent. However, if both his hands and face are abnormal, but proportionate to each other, then he should wash his face according to the manner prescribed in the previous article.

    245. If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in his eyebrows, the corner of his eyes or the side of his lips, and his suspicion is reasonable, he should inspect it before performing wuÃÙ, and remove the dirt if it is there.

    246. If facial skin is visible from beneath the facial hair, one should ensure that the water reaches the skin. However, if it is not visible, washing the facial hair will be sufficient, and it will not be necessary to make the water reach areas beneath the hair.

    247. If one doubts whether the facial skin is visible from beneath the hair, then he should wash the hair and also ensure that water reaches the skin as well.

    248. It is not obligatory to wash the inner areas of the nose, nor parts of the lips or the eyes which are not visible when they are closed. However, one must be certain that no area that needs to be washed has remained unwashed. If an individual did not know that he must wash the facial area to the extent that he is certain to have fulfilled his obligation, and does not know if he washed the aforementioned areas in the wuÃÙs that he has performed, all the prayers that he has performed with such wuÃÙs should be performed again with a new wuÃÙ, if their time has not elapsed. As for the prayers for which the time has elapsed, he should perform their qaÃÁ.

    249. The hands should be washed starting from above going downwards, and if they are washed starting from below and going upwards, the wuÃÙ is invalid. The same applies to washing the face based on obligatory precaution.

    250. If a person makes his hands wet, and wipes them over his face and hands, given that the wetness of the hand is to an extent that it causes water to flow over the face or hands upon wiping them, it will be sufficient.

    251. After washing the face, the right hand, followed by the left hand, should be washed from the elbow to the tip of the fingers.

    252. In order to ensure that one has completely washed his hands, he should also wash a part of the area above the elbows.

    253. If a person washes his hands up to his wrists prior to washing his face, he too must wash his hands down to the tip of the fingers when washing his hands. If he washes down to his wrists only, his wuÃÙ will be invalid.

    254. Washing the hands and face in wuÃÙ once is obligatory, twice is recommended and the thrice or more is forbidden. The first, second or third washing will be determined by one’s intention to wash that part with the intention of performing wuÃÙ. For example, if he pours water over his face three times, and the third time makes the intention to wash the part with the intention of wuÃÙ, there will be no harm in it, and the third washing will count as his first washing. However, if pours water over his face three times, with the intention of washing it for wuÃÙ each time, the third washing will be forbidden.

    255. After washing both hands, the front part of the head should be wiped with the water of wuÃÙ that is leftover in one’s hands. The obligatory precaution is that one should wipe with the inner surface of one’s right hand, and the recommended precaution is that he should wipe from the back to the front.

    256. The area to be wiped comprises of one section from the four sections of one’s head, located right above the forehead. Wiping any extent of any part on the defined area will be sufficient. It is recommended that the width of the wiping should be at least three joined fingers, and its length should be that of one finger.

    257. It is not necessary to wipe over the skin on one’s head; rather, one can also wipe on the hair that is located in the frontal area. However, a person who has long hair—for example, if he was to comb his hair, it would fall over his face or other parts of his head—should wipe at the base of his hair, or part his hair and wipe over the skin. If he gathers the hair that fall over his face or other parts of the head, on the frontal part of the head, and wipes over them, or wipes over hair from other areas of the head which have gathered in the frontal area, his wiping will be invalid.

    258. After wiping the head, using the wetness that is leftover on the hands from the water of wuÃÙ, one should wipe over his feet. The obligatory extent is that one should wipe from the tip of any toe to the protuberance on the top part of one’s foot, while the recommended precaution is that it should be wiped up to the ankle joint. The obligatory precaution is that right foot should be wiped first, and then the left foot, and similarly, the right foot should be wiped with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

    259. It is sufficient to wipe the foot by covering a width of any extent. However, it is better that the entire top surface of the foot is wiped using the entire surface of one’s palm.

    260. The obligatory precaution in wiping the feet is that the hand should be placed on the tip of the toes and then drawn towards the back, or it should be placed on the protuberance on one’s foot and then drawn to the tip of the toes. One should not simply place his entire hand on the foot and then draw it a little.

    261. While wiping the head or the feet, the hands should be drawn over them. One should not hold his hand stationary over them, and then wipe across the hand using his head or foot. There is no harm, however, if the head or foot moves a little as the hand is being drawn across them.

    262. The area being wiped should be dry. If the area is wet to the extent that the wetness of the hand has no effect on it, the wiping will be invalid. However, there is no harm if the wetness is so insignificant that the wetness leftover after wiping the area would be considered—in the common understanding—as the wetness leftover from the hands only.

    263. If there is no wetness leftover on the hands for the purpose of wiping, one cannot make his hands wet with extra water. Rather, he should draw water from the part of his beard that falls within the boundaries of his face, and wipe his head or feet with it. Drawing water from areas other than the beard, and wiping with it is problematic.

    264. If the wetness of the hand is just sufficient for wiping the head, one should wipe his head with the same wetness. He should then draw water for wiping the feet from the part of his beard that is considered to be a part of the face.

    265. Wiping over the shoes or socks is not valid. However, if one cannot take off his shoes or socks due to extremely cold weather, fear of thieves or wild animals, or similar dangers, based on obligatory precaution, he should wipe over his shoes or socks, and in addition, he should also perform tayammum.

    266. If the top surface of the foot is najis, and one cannot make it ÔÁhir for the purpose of wiping over it, he should perform tayammum.

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