30. If najÁsah comes in contact with flowing water, only the portion whose smell, colour or taste changes due to the najÁsah is najis. The side which is connected to the spring is ÔÁhir, even if it be less than kurr. Similarly, the water on the other side of the stream will be ÔÁhir if it is equal to kurr, or if it is connected to the water near the spring through unchanged water. If not, it is najis.
31. The water of a spring which does not flow, but replaces water every time water is drawn from it, will be treated as flowing water. This means that if it comes in contact with najÁsah, it is ÔÁhir as long as its smell, colour or taste does not change.
32. If water at the bank of a canal is stationary, but is connected with flowing water, and upon contacting a najis object its smell, colour or taste does not change, it does not become najis.
33. If a spring is active in winter, but remains dormant in summer, it will be treated as flowing water only when it is active.
34. Even though the water of the pool in a bath may be less than kurr, it will be treated as flowing water as long as it is connected to a source whose water is equivalent to kurr.
35. The water from the pipes fitted in bathrooms and buildings, pouring through taps and showers, will be treated as flowing water if it is connected to a tank holding water which is not less than kurr.
36. Water which flows on the ground but does not gush out from the earth, will become najis upon contacting najÁsah if it is less than kurr. However, if the water flows with force and najÁsah contacts its lower end, the upper end will not become najis.
37. If rain falls once upon a najis object which does not contain any ayn al-najÁsah, the areas which come in contact with the rain will become ÔÁhir. It is also not necessary to wring carpets, clothes or other similar items. However, if only a few droplets of rain fall, it will be of no (canonical) benefit. Rather it should rain in such a manner that one should be able to say, “it is raining.” In fact, based on obligatory precaution, it should rain in such a quantity that if it falls on a hard surface, the water starts to flow on it.
38. If rain water falls on an ayn al-najÁsah and splashes elsewhere, and if the ayn al-najÁsah is not found in the water, nor does it acquire the smell, colour or taste of the najÁsah, then that water is ÔÁhir. So, if it rains on blood and then splashes, and particles of blood are seen in the water, or it acquires the smell, colour or taste of blood, it is najis.
39. If there is ayn al-najÁsah on the roof of a building, the water that flows down from the roof or the drain spout after contacting the najis object will be deemed ÔÁhir as long as the rain continues to fall on the roof. After the rain stops falling, if it is known that the water that is flowing down has contacted a najis item, it will be najis.
40. A najis earth or ground on which rain falls becomes ÔÁhir, and if it begins flowing on the ground, and reaches a najis area under the roof while it is still raining, it makes that area ÔÁhir as well.
41. If rain water falls on najis dust and – before becoming mudhaf - soaks it, it becomes ÔÁhir even though it may have turned into mud due to the rain.
42. If rain water gathers in a place, even if its quantity is less than kurr, and a najis thing is washed in it while it is raining, it becomes ÔÁhir provided its smell, colour or taste does not change due to the najÁsah.
43. If it rains on a ÔÁhir carpet which is spread over a najis ground, and if the water seeps onto the najis ground, the carpet does not become najis. In fact, the ground also will become ÔÁhir.
44. If rain water gathers in a hole and its quantity is less than kurr, it will become najis if a najis object contacts it after it has stopped raining.
45. The water of a well which springs forth from the earth, even though its quantity may be less than kurr, does not become najis owing to something najis falling in it, unless its colour, smell, or taste changes. However, it is recommended that in the event of certain najÁsah falling in it, a quantity of water should be drawn from the well. Details about this quantity have been elucidated in more detailed texts.
46. If najÁsah falls into a well and changes the smell, colour or taste of its water, it will become ÔÁhir as soon as the change vanishes. The recommended precaution is to wait till it is mixed with the fresh water springing from the earth.
47. MuÃÁf water, the details of which were explained in article 15, cannot make a najis object ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with muÃÁf water is void.
48. MuÃÁf water, be its quantity less than kurr or more than it, becomes najis upon contacting a najis object. However, generalizing this ruling for large amounts of (muÃÁf) water is objectionable. If the water contacts a najis object with force, the amount that has touched the najis object will be najis, while the amount that has not, will remain ÔÁhir. For example, if rose water from a sprinkler is sprinkled over a najis hand, the amount that has reached the hand will be najis, while the amount which has not, will be ÔÁhir.
49. If najis muÃÁf water is mixed with kurr water or flowing water in a manner that it can no longer be called muÃÁf water, it becomes ÔÁhir.
50. Water which was originally muÔlaq and it is not known whether it has turned into muÃÁf water or not, will be treated as muÔlaq. It will make a najis object ÔÁhir and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with it will be valid. Water which was originally muÃÁf water, and it is not known whether it has turned into muÔlaq water or not, will be treated as muÃÁf water. It will not make najis objects ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ’ or ghusl performed with it will be invalid.
51. Water about which it is not known whether it is muÔlaq or muÃÁf, and it is also not known whether it was originally muÔlaq or muÃÁf, will not make najis things ÔÁhir, and wuÃÙ or ghusl performed with this water will be invalid. However if it comes in contact with a najis object and its quantity is equal to or more than kurr, it will be treated as ÔÁhir.
52. When an ayn al-najÁsah like blood or urine contacts water, and changes its smell, color or taste, it becomes najis even if it is kurr or flowing water. However, if the smell, color or taste of the water changes owing to a najÁsah which is outside it—for example, if a carcass, which is lying beside the water, causes a change in its smell—the water will not become najis.
53. Water in which ayn al-najÁsah such as urine or blood is poured, changing its smell, color or taste, is connected to kurr or flowing water, or if rain water falls on it, or is blown over it by the winds, or rain water falls on it through the drain spout while it is raining, the water will become ÔÁhir if the change vanishes. As a recommended precaution, rain water, kurr water, or flowing water should get mixed with it.
54. If a najis object is made ÔÁhir in kurr or flowing water, the water which causes the object to become ÔÁhir and then separates from it, is itself ÔÁhir as well.
55. Water which was originally ÔÁhir, and it is not known whether it has become najis or not, will be deemed ÔÁhir; and water which was originally najis, and it is not known whether it has become ÔÁhir or not, is najis.
56. The leftovers (food or drink) of a dog, a pig, and a kÁfir other than the Ahl al-KitÁb, are najis and forbidden to consume. However, the leftovers of animals whose meat is forbidden to consume are ÔÁhir albeit makrÙh to consume, with the exception of cats .
57. It is obligatory for a mukallaf conceal his private parts when relieving himself and at all other times from individuals who can distinguish good from evil, even if they are maÎram to him, be they mukallaf or not. However, a husband and wife are exempted from this obligation.
58. It is not necessary for a person to conceal his private parts with any particular item. It will be sufficient, for example, if he conceals them with his hand.
59. When relieving oneself, nor should the front part of one’s body, meaning the chest and the stomach, face the qiblah, nor should the back part face it.